When mentoring our pre-service and in-service teachers we need to describe and model both research-based and clinically tested best practices. Accordingly our mentees should know about the Direct Instruction Model of Teaching.
The direct instruction model of teaching, a teacher-directed instructional method, lends itself to helping students learn basic skills, and acquire knowledge in a step-by-step manner. This model is referred to by several different names including the training model (Joyce and Weil, 1972), explicit instruction (Rosenshine and Stephens, 1986), and mastery teaching (Hunter, 1982). Refer to the chart below for the five steps of the direct instruction model.
Five Steps of the Direct Instruction Model of Teaching
(*Arends, 2001)
Steps | Description | Teacher and/or Student Behavior |
1 | Get students ready to learn, and clarify the objective/s of the lesson | · Teacher gets the students ready to learn a skill or knowledge. · Teacher identifies the objective/s for the lesson, provides background information, and explains why the lesson is important. |
2 | Demonstrate skill or knowledge | · Teacher demonstrates the skill correctly, or provides a step-by-step explanation of what is to be done. |
3 | Provide guided practice | · Teacher gives students an opportunity to practice the skill, or acquire the knowledge. |
4 | Check for understanding, and provide feedback | · Teacher checks to see if students are doing the skill correctly, or are mastering the content. · Teacher gives feedback to the students. |
5 | Provide for extended practice, and transfer | · Teacher sets conditions for extended practice. · Teacher explains how the skill or knowledge can or will be used in more complex and reality-based situations. |
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