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Thursday, September 10, 2009

What is a Lesson Plan? What are the Eight Essential Elements of a Lesson Plan (Hunter, 1982)?

A lesson plan is a thoughtful written document designed to empower students to acquire, apply, and create knowledge. The chart below contains the eight essential elements of a lesson plan according to *M. Hunter (1982).

Eight Essential Elements of A

Lesson Plan (*Hunter, 1982)



Objective or Learning Outcome

The content or the knowledge that the student is supposed to learn.

Anticipatory Set

The motivational activity that prepares the student for the objective or learning outcome.

Introductory Activity

The initial exercise that focuses the attention of the student to the objective or learning outcome.

Developmental Activity or Activities

A set of steps or procedures designed to reach the objective or learning outcome.

Guided Practice

Instructional time devoted to enabling the student to apply new skills. or strengthen those skills learned at a previous time.


Initial, ongoing, and final activities designed to measure what the student has learned.

Independent Activity or Activities

An activity that takes place outside of the classroom where a student applies what he or she has learned in class.


An activity that summarizes and ends the lesson.

*These are the eight essential elements of a lesson plan according to M. Hunter (1982). Lesson plans, however, can also include other elements such as enduring Jewish knowledge, essential questions, standards, benchmarks, social skills, and thinking skills.

*Hunter, M. (1982). Mastery Teaching. El Segundo, CA: TIP Publications.

On the next post we will begin to discuss the Backward Design approach to lesson planning preparation of Wiggins, G. & McTighe, J. (1998).

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